Ophthalmology 21

History of ophthalmology



1 Grzybowski A., Witczak W., From the lens to the retina. From the history of research on the search for the receptive element of the eye. downloadable

2 Grzybowski A., Forgotten achievements of Polish retinal research in international ophthalmology. downloadable

Gałęzowski's 1862 ophthalmoscope, source: Gałęzowski K, Traité Iconographique d'Ophtalmoscopie, Paris 1875 (JP Wayenborgh, private collection)


1. the Doctor of Esperanto - Ludwik Zamenhof (1859-1917) downloadable

Ludwik Zamenhof: A Major Contributor to World Culture, on the 150th Anniversary of His Birth downloadable

3. Adam Bednarski (1869-1941) - Professor of ophthalmology in Lviv downloadable

4. professor nadzw. dr hab. n. med. Lech Bieganowski (1940-2017) - a meritorious ophthalmologist and an outstanding expert in the history of ophthalmology downloadable

5. Zygmunt Kramsztyk (1849-1920) - the most outstanding philosopher of science among Polish ophthalmologists of the 19th and 20th centuries downloadable

6. Stanisław Lubicz-Kośmiński (1837-1883): pioneer of paediatric ophthalmology and distinguished historian of medicine downloadable

7.Wilhelm Uhthoff (1853-1927) - important co-founder of world neuro-ophthalmology downloadable

8. Wiktor Feliks Szokalski, The Father of Ophthalmology in Poland downloadable

9. Ophthalmologists and ophthalmic diseases of dignitaries of the Russian Empire downloadable

Gałęzowski's ophthalmoscope during examination, source: Gałęzowski K, Traité Iconographique d′Ophtalmoscopie, Paris 1876 (JP Wayenborgh, private collection).